You need several types of fasteners in your construction. These are after all the essential elements which hold your entire building together. While most people will focus on the nuts and bolts of their construction, they forget one key fastener which determines the integrity of these nuts and bolts; the washer.
The washer in construction will evenly distribute the load on your nuts or screws. Moreover, it will minimize vibrations, prevent corrosion and act as the loading device for your construction. Although stainless steel fastener suppliers are the primary distributors of washers, they are also available in copper, nickel-chrome-cobalt and nickel-chrome alloys.
The three primary washer types include spring, plain and locking washers. Spring washers are the most common ones used and are renowned for their axial flexibility. As such, they will not be loosened by vibrations and are thus commonly used in areas prone to earthquakes.
The following are the spring washer types that might meet your construction’s requirements.
These are designed to increase the tension of your fastener assembly. Belleville washers are generally stacked for them to increase the construction’s deflection and load carrying capacity.
They have a conical shape and allow the application of a constant force throughout. They are thus used in areas where there is a risk of structural compromise from temperature variations.
These are noted for their split construction shape which features protruding flanges. Finger washers will combine the flexibility seen in crescent washers with the exceptional load distribution of a wave washer. They are often used in construction spots which need a high vibration and noise dampening.
These offer moderate load deflection and capacity are often used as spacers and cushions for construction sites. Wave washers comprise multiple waves to enhance their grip on constructions.
The wave number in most cases is more than three, although the ideal one depends on the strength you are looking for in your project. Single wave washers resemble crescent washer but have flat load points. The load points are designed to minimize abrasion when used against sensitive surfaces.
These have a high load capacity and a small overall deflection. Though similar to crescent washers in appearance, dome washers have ground curves and a flat load-bearing surface. As such, they can be used where load cycling capacities are not very rigid and on flat surfaces.
These are used for small construction projects and areas which do not need so high a structural strength. They have more control on linear rather than an axial play, which might limit their use to some extent. They are also only curved in one direction and hence will support wide deflection ranges with relatively light loads.
The best pick from the options above for your washers for your project will depend on the material you are using and the area of your construction. The key specifications which should guide your purchase include the outer and inner diameters, cone heights and plate thickness.
Other than these spring washers, you will also need locking and plain washers. The plain washers protect your construction’s surface from damage while the locking ones prevent the fastening and loosening of your fasteners.